Amorphous Si (α-Si), microcrystalline Si (µc-Si), nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si), amorphous SiGe (α-SiGe), and microcrystalline SiC (µc-SiC), are all thin film materials that can be used in PV layer stacks ranging from simple α-Si thin film PV structures to more complex tandem and multi-junction thin film PV structures.
EAG has characterization methods that can help address the drive towards higher and stable efficiency increases and issues associated with the scale up to reliable and uniform large scale manufacturing.
Surface analysis techniques can be applied successfully to investigate either different parts of the thin film structure or the entire film structure.
The thickness and composition of transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) can be addressed by RBS, XRR or XPS.
Crystallinity and phases can be determined by XRD.Potential contaminants, and contamination between layers can be investigated with XPS or AES.
Elemental profiles of atmospheric species (O, C, N, H), dopants (B, P), F and metal contamination can be obtained using SIMS.
Crystallinity fraction in the absorber layers can be determined by Raman.
Layer thicknesses, interface structure and grain structure can be determined by TEM, STEM and SEM.
Failure analysis and reverse engineering can be supported by FTIR, GC-MS, TOF-SIMS, TEM, STEM/EDS, STEM/EELS, SEM, EDS, XPS, AES and Raman.
Further information is available here.